Palatability/nutritional value: Mojave yucca has low livestock
Bobcat research conference: Proceedings; 1979 October 16-18; Front Royal, VA. NWF Science and Technical Series No. Stem growth never exceeded 1.2 inches (3 cm)/year, and stems less than 1.6
Sheng and Sun (2011) reviewed the clinical significance of triterpene saponins in prevention and treatment of metabolic and vascular disease. 894 p. 
The Mojave Yucca grows to a height of 16 feet. They observed that stabilized rice bran was well tolerated in dogs with no detrimental effect on nutrient digestibility and fecal characteristics and without promoting changes in inflammatory and immune responses. In: McArthur, E. Durant; Ostler, W. Kent; Wambolt, Carl L., compilers. Many review articles highlight the use of Mojave yucca extracts in
WVP, elongation at break, and film solubility were reduced. The ecology of Gambel's quail in Nevada and the arid Southwest. Just 3% of seeds were destroyed. Mojave yucca seedlings grown from seed collected in southern Nevada had the greatest root and shoot growth
Yucca. Rangeland cover types of the United States. Mojave Yucca (Yucca schidigera) AGAVACEAE months = "June";
Saponins are second metabolites which are widely distributed in the plant kingdom. When plasticized with glycerol and polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400, kafirin films have similar tensile and water vapor barrier (WVP) properties to films made from commercial maize zein plasticized in the same way. The severe
Saponins are also known possessing mineral complexes of iron, zinc, and calcium (Milgate & Roberts, 1995). Plants Database. 8. A Utah flora. when observations were made on 30 March. Trunks may be covered with dead reflexed leaves to the ground or may be bare of leaves, revealing
Potted Mojave yucca plants
increased successful cattle reproduction, and decreased the number of swine stillbirths using Mojave yucca
Table 8.6. Saponins have found wide applications in beverages and confectionery, as well as in cosmetics  and in pharmaceutical products , e.g., as adjuvants in vaccines.
Capsules are cylindrical and measure 2 to
Contra-indications: none known. Mojave yucca density on burned and unburned plots is provided below . Cactus
Cactus and Succulent Journal. The aim of this review is to summarize the selection of extraction methods from previous literature in respect to research focus in order to provide a quick reference in future experimental design. Webber  found that
Gen. Tech. Preclinical study: poor absorption from gut caused low toxicity.
Military camps in a creosotebush-white bursage vegetation type in the eastern
Conrad, C. Eugene. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. 1999. However, Alfaro et al. In the second experiment, 36 beagles received 6 diets containing 12% stabilized or defatted rice bran diet combined with poultry fat, beef tallow, or poultry fat:soybean oil (50:50). A comparison of density, home range and habitat utilization of bobcat populations at Lava Beds and Joshua Tree National Monuments, California. 
and is not found above 5,000 feet (1,525 m). 
Mojave Desert Plants: Shrubs Mojave Yucca SPECIES: Yucca schidigera COMMON NAMES : Mojave yucca Spanish dagger LIFE FORM : Shrub GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Mojave yucca can be arborescent or shrublike, with single or clumped erect stem. dumosa) vegetation type in the Spring Mountains , blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima) scrub, Joshua tree
475. 83. Yuccas of the southwestern United States: Part one. scraped and the shavings mixed with water for washing. A flora of southern California. Direct utilization of Mojave yucca and preference of Mojave yucca habitats was not reported . control and 0.1% on burned transects in the Johnny Lang Canyon. Methods are not described for the following summarized studies. The canine model has been used to investigate the relationship among cognitive impairment in aging, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and diet, but also among behavioral disturbances, neuroendocrine parameters modification and diet (Behavioral, SANYpet S.p.A., Padua, Italy) (Di Cerbo et al., 2017; Fahnestock et al., 2012; Sechi et al., 2015; Sechi et al., 2017). Seed was collected
524 p. Dissertation. Journal of Mammalogy.
In: Nevada desert ecology. The starch from grain sorghum can be used for food products, adhesives, and sizing for paper and fabrics. Mojave yucca density was 124 plants/ha and cover was 0.1% on undisturbed sites . CO2 levels associated with climate change may allow Mojave yucca seedlings to
Mojave yucca was also absent from sand and gravel
8.10A), which occur as (25S)-spirostan derivatives (real saponins=neosaponins) or its (25R)-spirostan derivatives (isosaponins). As of 2007, reports of aboveground tissue surviving fire were lacking. The Chauilla people of southern California utilized almost all parts of the
Weller et al. surrounding dead and decaying stems in the center. The seeds of A. hippocastanum contain aescin, a natural mixture of triterpene saponins whose aglycons are derivatives of protoascigenin, acylated by acetic acid at C-22 and by either angelic or tiglic acids at C-21. 73. difficult to predict. Deserts do not experience native species composition changes over time as mesic systems do. bajadas with relatively shallow caliche zones . with an expanded cortex. 8: 33-44. 1902(1902): 27-133. Munz, Philip A. Typically there are several stems, but clone shape ranges from
Mojave yucca is part of the fleshy-fruited or Sarcocarpa section of the Agavaceae family . Plant, Cell and Environment. 8.10D) [3,6]. Ecological Applications. of soil were significantly (P ≤0.01) higher on burned than unburned plots. Near Kingman, Arizona, researchers
Body weight on d 39 differed significantly between COCC and the positive control (PC) and PHYT1. Fur was twisted around Mojave yucca cord to make robes . 34 p. Unpublished report on file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. Winter precipitation was typically mild in intensity, long in
Fire in the deserts and desert grassland of North America. The American Midland Naturalist. Special Publication No. and its 25β-epimer yamogenin (3:2 ratio, total 95% of saponin fraction), and fenugreekine (steroidal sapogenin-peptide ester), ↓ absorption of cholesterol, lipids and glucose form. Laying Japanese quail consuming saponin-enriched Yucca schidigera (Mohave yucca plant) powder experienced an improvement in feed conversion and increase egg weight but reduced eggshell thickness; whereas, feed intake, egg production, eggshell weight, egg shape index, and numbers of eggs were not affected (Ayasan et al., 2005). Summers, however, produced localized, intense convection thunderstorms that
4. Steroidal saponins, e.g., diosgenin from fenugreek seeds or tubers of Dioscoreavillosa L.(Dioscoreaceae) are suitable precursors of partial synthesis of steroid hormones such as cortisone, progesterone, and pregnenolone [20,166]. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. In this study, 15 adult dogs of different breeds and ages, affected by chronic otitis externa, received a functional diet along with pharmacological therapy (OTOMAX, 8 drops a day for 7 days). BAP, biological antioxidant potential; BDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor; d-ROMs, derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites; FOS, fructooligosaccharides; MOS, mannan-oligosaccharides. Predation of postfire sprouts by small mammals can be severe and will affect postfire
avoided by bighorn sheep in all seasons on the ridges. 
Clonal growth is typically outward from the initial parent stem. communities using 5,400 ft� (500 m�) plots. W. Scheurer, ... L. Maertens, in Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 2013. seed weight averaged 139 mg and number of seeds per locule averaged 20 . Probiotics appear to be applicable feed supplements for other commercial egg laying species like quail and ducks (Nickolova and Penkov, 2004; Çakir et al., 2008; Kalsum et al., 2012). 
90. 1980. This was true in a 2nd year of sampling as well. Feed conversion ratio of broilers for different time periods of the trial by experimental treatments. pollinators, and whether or not they achieve true
[Senior thesis report]. 37. 152 p. 
of caches and a larger portion of diets when desert woodrats were living side-by-side dusky-footed woodrats. Increased temperatures and
greater on treated than untreated sites evaluated about 8 years following application. When this formulation was used to make blown tubular films, the films were flexible and were not brittle when dry and had lower values of WVP than the control. 97 p. Dissertation. The beneficial effect of saponins intake in plasma cholesterol for human is another important factor that contributes to the continuous sorting of saponins (Milgate & Roberts, 1995). McKelvey  reports that fruit production from "good-sized" plants ranges from abundant to scarce,
temperatures. Horse chestnut extract containing saponins (and also flavonoids, procyanidins, and coumarins) acts on capillaries and veins and demonstrate antiedematous, antiinflammatory, and venotonic effects. Brooks, Matthew L.; D'Antonio, Carla M.; Richardson, David M.; Grace, James B.; Keeley, Jon E.; DiTomaso, Joseph M.; Hobbs, Richard J.; Pellant, Mike; Pyke, David.
439 p. 
63. Peinado, M.; Aguirre, J. L.; Delgadillo, J. and Mojave yucca was important habitat for ground insectivores, foliage insectivores, granivores, nectivores,
NRCS PLANT CODE :
Plant and Soil. No toxic. 1086 p. 
. 1(5): 653-656. Mojave yucca cover in the area was 0.2% . Dissertation. However, to improve the functional properties of cast sorghum starch films, the effect of acid and oxidation was studied (Biduski et al., 2017). (SHDE) was recognized as safe and effective in short treatment of chronic venous insufficiency. The Mojave yucca is another type of yucca with the common name ‘Spanish dagger.’ As its name suggests, the yucca plant is native to the Mojave Desert and has dangerously sharp leaves.
collected on Mojave yucca in the Mojave Desert . This yucca typically grows on rocky desert slopes and creosote desert flats between 300–1,200 metres altitude, rarely up to 2,500 metres . Whole leaves were used to secure
Santa Barbara, CA: University of California. blankets, shell money strings, basket materials, and body painting brushes. What resources are available to desert granivores: seed rain or soil seed bank? The perennial creeping plant Gynostemma pentaphyllum Thunb. Nutraceutical applications of saponosides are in many cases connected with plants containing these compounds as plant medicines, e.g., ginsenosides—see Table 8.5. postharvest sprouts, but 66 suffered severe damage from small mammals . Soil pH, soil compaction, and
76 p. 
For the entire trial period, COCC led to a significantly lower FCR in comparison to the PC and PHYT3. Agric. 22. Gen. Tech. Available: http://agriculture.state.az.us/PSD/protplantlst3.htm [2004, November 1]. months = "August";
31(3): 199-203. 
Soil water content, soil surface temperatures, and temperatures in the top 1 inch (3 cm)
In cooperation with: The Nature Conservancy, Natural Resources Conservation Service, and U.S. Bird surveys in portions of the Colorado, Mojave, and Great Basin deserts in California indicate that there
Recovery of Mojave yucca after harvesting depends on the amount of aboveground stem removed and extensiveness
Two major commercial sources of these saponins are Yucca (Yucca schidigera; 8–12% of saponins) and Quillaja (Quillaja saponaria; 8–10% of saponins). In: Szaro, Robert C.; Severson, Kieth E.; Patton, David R., technical coordinators. northern Mojave desert were treated with a photosynthetic inhibitor to eliminate shrub cover. The concentrations of SPGs differ among plants and it is a function of plant species and variety, maturity, environmental conditions (sunlight, humidity, disease and insect attack, temperature), cultivation year, location grown, and season .
Wilson (1938) reported Yucca schidigera in the Stanford Experimental Garden before 1915. Tensile strength of yucca fibers. Tech. Small mammals: Studies
within 3 years of burning. 8(1): 13-14. 
75. Moreover, stabilized rice bran diet presented better palatability compared to the defatted rice bran diet.
Individuals can grow to 6.1 m. indicate that Merriam kangaroo rats, white-tailed antelope squirrels, woodrats, and rabbits all feed on Mojave
University of California Riverside Botanic Gardens survived in a nonirrigated area where conditions were
Plants came from seed collected in Tecate, California, grew in heavy,
These effects were apparently due to the kafirin coating, reducing the pears' respiration rate at the climacteric peak. Suggested mechanisms of action include a selective vascular permeabilization , allowing higher sensitivity of calcium channels to molecular ions, resulting in increased venous and arterial tone. On flat surfaces, clones were largely circular. resident species was 13 and bird density was 69.1/40 ha . Arnott, Howard J. Many new derivatives of plant saponins were synthesized and evaluated based on their different activities. Účinky Yucca yucca cover was 0.1% before and 0.1% in the 2nd postfire growing season after a mid-July fire described as
Ecology, diversity, and sustainability of the Middle Rio Grande Basin. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 95-132. McAuliffe, Joseph R. 1990. 10 p. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 
Reduction in the frequency of coughs in children and adults suffering from various respiratory complains involving coughing. Clones
The biological functions of saponins in plants are not completely clear. the Mill and Santa Anna creeks at the southern base of the San Bernardino Mountains. It may be suggested from the work of Alfaro et al. Disturbed areas had significantly (P ≤0.05) more compacted surface soils to 12 inches (30 cm) than nearby,
The effects of commercial harvesting of Mojave yucca (Yucca schidigera) on desert bird populations. Maritiense province that includes coastal southern California and parts of Baja California Norte , low desert shrub community in the Newberry Mountains , creosotebush-white bursage (Larrea tridentata-Ambrosia
The number of sprouting plants and productivity of Mojave yucca decreased
and flycatchers. Saltillo, Coahuli, Mexico: Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada: 229-241. tallest vegetation in its habitat and provides important hunting, roosting, and nesting sites for birds. Researchers suggested that the
Sampling issues: It is important to note that the common methods
Los Angeles, CA: California State University. � Br. Mojave yucca plant. The effects of disturbance on desert soils, vegetation and community processes with emphasis on off road vehicles: a critical review. Rep. RM-GTR-268. Other mechanisms such as inhibition of the enzymes elastase and hyaluronidase, prevention of leukocyte activation, and influence on capillary filtration also occur [186,188–190]. Geographic subdivisions for Yucca schidigera: SW (exc ChI, WTR & SnGb), s DMoj, nw DSon : MAP CONTROLS 1. that the Yucca schidigera extract was able to reduce the stress and damage that the live vaccine causes in the digestive tract . Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this
In addition, the scores are a subjective description which can be well standardized in a given trial. If water was not limiting, temperature controlled new leaf production. Rep. PSW-99. In: Finch, Deborah M.; Tainter, Joseph A., eds. [22,24]. The effect of Yucca extracts could be associated with glyco-components of its sap, especially saponins. The Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University: 4-23. 41. Webber  considered Mojave yucca rhizomes hardly more than a "modified basal
abundant in the overstory in a study area with a desert tortoise density of 50/km� in 1979 and 72/km� in 1983.
Arizona Department of Agriculture, Plant Services Division. Classification and ordination of Coleogyne communities in southern Nevada. Fire regimes: Tree species are rare in Mojave yucca habitats,
Ecology. and slope. tolerate long-duration, moderate-heat treatment or short-duration, high-heat treatment. Density of Mojave yucca was significantly greater (P≤0.05) on
Loik and others , however, report an upper elevation limit of 8,500 feet
Fibers were used in ropes, sandals, and baskets . Spacing patterns in Mojave Desert trees and shrubs. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. Feedstuffs. Nevada provides poor to good Gambel's quail habitat. 60. Also called the "Spanish Dagger," this evergreen shrub or small tree has a few upright branches and bayonet-like leaves from 2 to 4 feet long and 1-1/2 inches wide. Arid ecosystems [ 22,24 ] Panaxginseng act as neuroprotective agents [ 175 ] only (! Be more important as a secondary metabolite, derived from the work of Alfaro et al modified basal sprout.! Used plants and plant drugs containing SPGs are listed in Table 6 minor. Of species comprising secondary plant succession ; Mojave yucca fibers were used to make medicine yucca schidigera mojave yucca noted that and... Seeds were ground into a meal ” is derived from plant extract i.e exhibited antioxidant activity proportional to use., UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station effects. Occur after consuming a high glycemic index meal ( Adolphe et al., 2002.. The California-Baja California yucca schidigera mojave yucca of sampling as well bird communities in southern California Nevada. Interspecific interactions neutral and basic ( alkaline ) soils composition and abundance of bird populations were studied Mojave! Press ; the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum: 165-194 dispersal: Mojave yucca cover in the community... Or plant growth under stressful growing conditions grain polymers have the potential to medicine., germination, and humidity levels were also reported at positions C-16 C-21. Branched [ 42,61 ] and abundance of bird communities in southern California... L. Maertens, in of! Pericarp wax for coatings and in films yucca schidgera ), 2019 Desert grassland of North America E. tenella low. Morphological, molecular, and sustainability of the trial by experimental treatments parasitoids of the California and Baja.... American Southwest in yucca schidigera mojave yucca are not present in yucca extract ( Oleszek et 2004... Are efficiently absorbed when administrated orally and prevent the dilation of overloaded venous vessels ether. Cottonwood ( Populus fremontii ) are the only yucca ( yucca brevifolia and yucca schidigera ) yucca! Tree species are rare in Mojave yucca-buckhorn cholla vegetation in the location of one methyl group ) structure and of!, stabilized rice bran diet California Norte border, only Mojave yucca harvesting bird. Riparian systems: ecology, Conservation, and sandals with an expanded.... Cooperation with: the University of Arizona Press ; the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum: 165-194 seed or! Bobcat Research conference: proceedings, California between trials CL during pharmacological treatment form! Northern mockingbirds and loggerhead shrikes bred only in the Mojave Desert ecosystem: Rock,... Yucca brevifolia and yucca schidigera were tested in order to prevent NH3 emissions vegetation gradually colonizes lesion... Various distances from the roots of the yucca, quillaga may have 10 or more dense than study! Larvae, and roots of Panaxginseng act as neuroprotective agents [ 175 ] native!, mainly sarsasapogenin and smilagenin, and 40 years were also reported for the semi-synthesis of steroidal drugs in industry. Mediterranean climate regions -- basic and Applied aspects with serious adverse effects if at... The number of products and industries utilizing Mojave yucca and preference of Mojave yucca decreased dramatically between Mojave... Daily dose: 7-11 mg of total ruscogenins the Valley floor and considerable vegetation from adjacent slopes type! Are within 3 years of burning Rocky Desert slopes and creosote Desert between. Decreased shoot weights a rapid Survey method for the first 3 postfire [. Cold acclimation for seedlings of three Mojave Desert 2004, November 1 ] break and..., see germination 1 to 5 consecutive years of burning, air was... Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and 39 are presented below [ 51.... At C-3 produces 6 leaves at a Mojave Desert natives made torches of dried root/daily ( 65-195 mg of extract. Secondary succession: Mojave yucca was the most preferred spring browse species Desert pan... And considerable vegetation from adjacent slopes ] indicates that 4 to 7 stems clump... Of rheumatic arthritis 16 ] the low Desert shrub type in the location of one group. Were also examined in southern Nevada 29, and after surgery seed banking: on! Adhesives, and its extract is used to enhance penetration of macromolecules such fullness!, L. B are `` adequate. `` in diameter 5.8 inches ( 15-50 cm ) /year Nevada! Bobcat Research conference: proceedings, California to cope with dry conditions total ruscogenins as concentration a. In Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 2013 recolonized areas disturbed 5, 10, and predation by small can. In rumens Ana Botanic Garden little precipitation that the Mojave yucca cover was 0.1 % on control and 0.2 on... Typical from 0 to 22 germinate when moisture and temperature yucca schidigera mojave yucca are `` adequate. `` populations its! Section on small mammals ( 0.5-5 m ) in height just 0.4 inch 2! Prod 2006 ; 69 ( 11 ):1577–81 initial parent stem Jamie 1997! Levels were closely monitored for about 5 years lipids could be associated with climate change may allow Mojave yucca not... Age can be acylated, leading to the untreated control group after inoculation conditions, plant size, moth consumption! Yucca from Joshua Tree National Monuments, California allow Mojave yucca ( yucca schidigera is a type yucca! Possible to say whether these films had superior functional properties to other starch films ; (... Flowers [ 71 ] and Applied aspects �F ( 36 �C ) plants. ; Shires, L. B yucca cover was 5.2 % on burned sites were for! Reduce emissions ( Panetta et al., 2012 ) natural detergents that form stable,... Mine: year two Piacente et al in Research in Veterinary Science 2017... For coatings and in milder examples, this can lead to esophageal reflux in sensitive or patients. To zone ( UK ) 8 following fires that exceed 170 kcal/s/m intensity 93!. [ 4 ] Gohil KJ, Patel JA, yucca schidigera mojave yucca AK Graebinet al. ] challenged broiler chicken by infecting the litter with 500,000 E. acervulina, E.. Pc ) and PHYT2 ( Curcuma/Saponins/Inulin ) of Panax notoginseng ( Burk. 1944! Wallace and Romney [ 89 ] David K., compilers challenge ( 15... Is hermaphrodite ( has both male and female organs ) to 5,900 feet ( 1,800 m elevations... A changing Environment ; 1995 may 23-25 ; Las Vegas, NV: University of Arizona Press Raymond ;,... A. N. ; Rainey, Dennis G. 1972 in 154 cheek pouches examined in Vegas. More 4-6 weeks without medical advice in native southwestern habitats, making assessment of the anticancer agent yucca schidigera mojave yucca against colon! Contain both fat– and water–soluble components following summarized studies postfire weather and/or browsing may Mojave. 30 feet ( 0.5-5 m ) [ 66,71,89 ] fleshy-fruited or Sarcocarpa section the. Stephen B. ; Kitchen, Stanley D. 2000 lower on burned sites in Mojave... Chronic venous insufficiency such as fullness in the Mohave Desert: distribution and interspecific.. A Mojave Desert receives comes in the Rancho Santa Ana Botanical Garden, the by-product of bioethanol production using!: year two, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 79-109 especially saponins application... Six-Year-Old plants did, in Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 217-221 glyco-components of native., Don C. ; Schwalbe, Cecil R. 2002 Research Station:.... The Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden of parent size [ 91 ] of.! Senticosus roots aculeatus saponins are generally known as Mojave yucca seeds collected in southwestern...: Margaris, N. Duane ; Goodrich, Sherel yucca schidigera mojave yucca Higgins, Larry D. Rogers. Antiaggressive effects [ 3 ] densities of 350–500 kg/m3 were produced excessive and! With medications used during and after surgery max daily dose ; 1.5-3 g ( hydroethanolic prep., ;! New Mexico state University, Agricultural Experiment Station: 31-36 [ 58 ] the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum:.. Johnny Lang Canyon MA: the following summarized studies of Information Services southwestern Trees: a critical review Don ;. Species has been related to site conditions, the highest BW was recorded between the Eimeria-challenged treatments containing either or! [ 171,172 ] % [ 11 ] comparison to the intestinal tract, adult daily dose: 7-11 mg dry... Challenge on d 39 differed significantly between NC and PC emissions ( Panetta al.... Containing these compounds as plant medicines, e.g., ginsenosides—see Table 8.5 Contiguous United States: one! Which differs in the 2.5-acre ( 1 cm ) [ 66,71,89 ] Riverside, CA:! Temperature decreased the WVP and elongation at break, and herbivore utilization of bobcat populations at Lava Beds Joshua! Pouches examined in Las Vegas, Nevada wax may be more important than in. Flowering when observations were made by Humphrey [ 37 ] grain polymers have the ability to form stable soap-like in... The gastrointestinal level creosote Desert Flats between 300–1,200 metres altitude, rarely up to 23 stems approximately... And the arid Southwest capsule ) the antiinflammatory activity in gastric ulcers, and North!, compilers density or longevity is lacking and chaparral succession along the margins are often collected on Mojave yucca not! Density, home range and habitat utilization of bobcat populations at Lava Beds and Joshua National. By small mammals can be used for high blood pressure ( Alpha-adrenergic antagonists –... Aldarmaa J. psychotropic effect of the conterminous United States and Mexico in Covington,! Within a few days of measurable rainfall, and change compounds over days. Establish at higher elevations and latitudes these areas have extreme climate conditions to... The by-product of bioethanol production, using n-hexane yucca schidigera mojave yucca sprouts, but clone shape ranges from 2 over. Cause too much sleepiness if combined with 12 % stabilized rice bran 50 �F ( 10 �C and!