endobj What are some side effects that I need to call my doctor about right away? endstream �ҏ�4R045PI�2г414�P@��ҁR���@C33s]*nlb�`bd��˥���T �(��� �, �ҏ�4P045PI�2г414�P@��ҁR���@C33s]*nlb�`bd��˥���T �(��� �N* 7 0 obj (1) One physical property of calcium chloride is that in a physical state it can be found as a solid at room temperature in flake, granule, and powder forms. ���y^�i�s�j)��x�����ӫ�� Calcium chloride dihydrate, LR, >=97%. endstream endstream ����( ��( ����t�����A�j6�F����{}{u �XcR�#��(PM��� j�ړ�����o|E�֦�g��?���Mw)�;xS�呰���98 �������*o�5�e�m�#��7I}�}���b�ou�ҩ&� =�?�����U�#�#� ��h?�Awk��I�u��VX �Nۍn��)��ʃ瑳����O� ?���7� � C��i:m�� endstream It is also corrosive to metals such as brass and steel. �ҏ�4S045PI�2г414�P@��ҁR���@C33s]*nlb�`bd��˥���T �(��� ��0 x�+�r <>stream �ҏ�4V045PI�2г414�P@��ҁR���@C33s]*nlb�`bd��˥���T �(��� ��- Calcium hypochlorite is an inorganic compound with formula Ca(ClO) 2.It is the main active ingredient of commercial products called bleaching powder, chlorine powder, or chlorinated lime, used for water treatment and as a bleaching agent. Contact with zinc forms flammable hydrogen gas, which can be explosive. endstream <>stream �ҏ�4Q045PI�2г414�P@��ҁR���@C33s]*nlb�`bd��˥���T �(��� ��. It behaves as a typical ionic … It is used to maintain calcium levels in water, as a drying agent to melt ice, can be used to strengthen concrete and is used in fire extinguishers. Calcium chloride (odourless, very hygroscopic, white, deliquescent crystals, granules, lumps or flakes), CaCl2, is a salt of calcium and chloride. According to the REACH Guidance for identification and naming of substances under REACH, hydrates and water free (anhydrous) forms of compounds shall … Calcium chloride must be administered slowly through the vein. (�� Formula: CaCl 2 Molecular mass: 111.0 It is important in the synthesis of dyes and pharmaceuticals. May re-ignite after fire is extinguished. %���� David Kennedy attended Purdue University in West Lafayette, Indiana. WARNING/CAUTION: Even though it may be rare, some people may have very bad and sometimes deadly side effects when taking a drug. 5, 862]. Non flammable, air-and-coal mixtures are fire and explosion proof. ... Non-Flammable Gas This item is restricted in certain states. MFCD00149613. When exposed calcium chloride will absorb moisture and form a solution. 2 - H319 The full text for all hazard statements is displayed in Section 16. �ҏ�4T045PI�2г414�P@��ҁR���@C33s]*nlb�`bd��˥���T �(��� ��+ (�� Aqueous calcium chloride (in solution with water) lowers the freezing point as low as −52 °C (−62 °F), making it ideal for filling agricultural implement tires as a … Ingestion of concentrated solutions or solid products may cause gastrointestinal irritation or ulceration. Attacks zinc in the presence of water. If ingested, calcium chloride can lead to burns in the mouth and throat, excess thirst, vomiting, stomach pain, low blood pressure, and other possible severe health effects. (�� calcium chloride 30-60% CAS number: 10043-52-4 EC number: 233-140-8 Classification Eye Irrit. �� �Q� ��ۏ���� Although calcium chloride is not flammable, toxic and does not burn, it can produce hydrogen atoms if it reacts with zinc and sodium. Calcium Chloride, Dihydrate CAS No 10035-04-8 100% This product or mixture does not contain a toxic chemical or chemicals in excess of the applicable de minimis concentration as specified in 40 CFR §372.38(a) subject to the reporting requirements of section 313 of Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 Bromine trifluoride rapidly attacks calcium chloride [Mellor 2 Supp. endobj Calcium promotes plant growth, and chloride is an important micronutrient for plants and plays a role in photosynthesis. Long term exposure of calcium chloride solution upon a zinc coated galvanized iron vessel caused slow evolution of hydrogen which ignited and exploded [Bretherick, 5th Ed., 1995]. %PDF-1.4 May react vigorously with oxidizing materials. Applies to calcium chloride: intravenous solution. When hydrochloric acid is mixed or reacted with limestone, it produces calcium chloride, a type of salt used to de-ice roads. Produce flammable gases on contact with water. <>stream endobj Calcium chloride also has uses in food production as a stabilizer and firming agent, for example in baked goods, as well as uses as an antimicrobial. This 100 g bottle of calcium chloride is anhydrous (without water). Even though calcium chloride is a non-flammable substance, when it comes in contact with metals, such as zinc or sodium, hydrogen is produced, and hydrogen is highly flammable. �ҏ�4U045PI�2г414�P@��ҁR���@C33s]*nlb�`bd��˥���T �(��� �Q/ May ignite on contact with water or moist air. Calcium chloride is used on sidewalks, roads and in parking lots as a deicing agent. (ERG, 2016) <>stream bromide trifluoride, 2-furan percarboxylic acid because calcium chloride is incompatible with those substances. Description of first aid measures General information Promptly … Calcium chloride poses some serious health and safety hazards. �� C�� T�" �� 6 0 obj 8 0 obj <>stream <>stream The powdered mixture of the acetylide and iron oxide and iron chloride burns violently upon ignition, producing molten iron. <>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI]>>/Type/XObject/Filter/FlateDecode/Length 39/Matrix[1 0 0 1 0 0]>>stream ?�ei���}����'�e�y����ת+��C��焿�Q� �(� ���k� ��� �� �Q���}������ ���?^���_�}'Ư����� 15 0 obj Hazard Class – 3. endstream SECTION 4: First aid measures 4.1. The solution in water is a weak base. It can also irritate skin by causing excessive dryness or desiccating moist skin. May be ignited by heat, sparks or flames. Although calcium chloride is not flammable, toxic and does not burn, it can produce hydrogen atoms if it reacts with zinc and sodium. Calcium chloride 2-hydrate. Calcium chloride hydrate (JP17) 1653AH. endobj This produces toxic and corrosive fumes of chlorine (see ICSC 0126). x�+�r There is 32% calcium chloride aqueous solution. Catalyzes exothermic polymerization of methyl vinyl ether. An accelerant typically increases strength, reaction or means the concrete settles in faster. Find the calcium chloride formula, density, shelf life, and more below. Tare: PBB at 600 kg, shipping in open cars, carload rate – 45 tons (75 PBB), by automotive transport to pick-up (overload). It is provided in a 10 mL Unit of Use Syringe to facilitate prompt intravenous injection. endobj endstream 1:164, 165 1956]. 5 0 obj Calcium chloride dihydrate, AR, >=98%. 2 0 obj x�+�r �e��o�_���� ���?�ϼ~��A����� ���?���� �*� ���~4�烿�U� �(� Ps>�����˄������TW�/�>��O��x7� G� ��� ���� ?� � �W� m��A�?������ ��/�?^��~~�> ���]�?�ue�5� ��E��u����~o�g �. 24 Hour Emergency Information Telephone Numbers 1.3. Calcium chloride is not flammable, but if it comes in contact with metals, such as zinc or sodium, it may produce flammable hydrogen. Some react vigorously or explosively on contact with water. 3 0 obj Calcium chloride is a salt used in a number of applications, including construction, building maintenance, mining and manufacturing. Dissolves violently in water with liberation of much heat. <>stream endobj %&'()*456789:CDEFGHIJSTUVWXYZcdefghijstuvwxyz��������������������������������������������������������������������������� CALCIUM CARBIDE is a reducing agent. 9 0 obj Containers previously used to store calcium chloride may be hazardous when empty since they contain product residues and leftovers. (�� Decomposes on heating. 10% Calcium Chloride Injection, USP is a sterile, nonpyrogenic, hypertonic solution. (�� endobj Wet calcium chloride and concentrated solutions could corrode steel tanks. endstream 4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use. The dosage of calcium chloride solution is 20 mg/kg. Observe calcium chloride's unique light spectrum with our Spectroscope Analysis Kit! $4�%�&'()*56789:CDEFGHIJSTUVWXYZcdefghijstuvwxyz�������������������������������������������������������������������������� ? 8217AF. Calcium chloride main usages are as follow: - Oil and gas drilling agent - Road deicing agents @�H. (=*���o|���C7�p�6�b�(��(��(��(��(��(��(��(��(��(��(��(��(��� ���)?��_�]?�o�a����e�w�A2����C,d�Z�"2���2�l\�� � �i?�<3}�'�n�W��m�ĺ���7���_���w2��ćw�d#�/�*��1���S���Z��c��֯t>ũ�S���l�*���Y)X�h���̏-�4��U��.��d��/��9kT���Я�:�K� ��+��hz���"|k�է�y�^ZH%�T��2a�.�h-Ѥ������ 5��?�?���������~$x�Q�m?UF�o�Q��u ���@�؍�� Calcium chloride pellets should not be ingested. Zinc: Avoid contact of Calcium Chloride with Zinc as it forms hydrogen gas that is flammable and can prove to be explosive. Extinguishing media Suitable extinguishing media The product is not flammable. It is the 4-20 mesh granular form and is useful as a desiccant (a drying agent). Due to high demand for RPI Calcium Chloride Anhydrous, Powder, 1 kg, 1 EA, availability is subject to change without notice. 10 0 obj Runoff may create fire or explosion hazard. <> Copyright 2021 Leaf Group Ltd. / Leaf Group Media, All Rights Reserved. Acetyl chloride is used in the Friedel-Craft acylation of benzene to yield acetophenone. However, calcium chloride is more effective than calcium gluconate in supporting blood pressure in the hypotensive child (Broner et al., 1990). Kennedy writes informational articles related to health, medicine, industry, computers and education. After expiring, stainless steel extinguishers with calcium chloride should not be tested or replaced but destroyed. After graduating with a Bachelors of Arts in creative writing, he has continued his writing career through online freelance work with Demand Studios. x�+�r Special hazards arising from the substance or mixture Specific hazards No information available. �+��Q� ���3�ٺ��'�O�|)�Q����MIխ[��lR�u���hY��q#e�Y&b���g� �Y�g�_����Gᆏ5���?–��ɹil(YOʎ͏2R�ڡ��*�W�����ri�.������Z�n��0���5,����}-�B�O���?�� ���ͮ�^fHn�1$����d��e������ۚ���2�~ xj�Y��+[J�̶���K�'\�J�����A��s����u��#��|������C!�ݚ������f�K�e;�Ԭ`y��z�� ��\� �y|{����5G}�� �:���MYL2x7Vr3����F���Ws\�GGد��zj��4�����v���՝�]�Z��|�����EW��QE W���� ���D�-����u~L� �au�/�z��V��M��۸K���#�g\��*8�_e��r�%�������� y~��5� It is a deliquescent salt, meaning it can liquefy by absorbing moisture in the air. 12 0 obj Advice for firefighters Special protective equipment for firefighters No information available. Drilling brine (containing Calcium, Potassium, or Sodium salts) (see also Potassium chloride solution (10% or more)) # Drilling brines, including: Calcium bromide solution, Calcium chloride solution and Sodium chloride solution (if non-flammable and non-combustible) Z Drilling brines (containing Zinc salts) X LS-3173. �*��QǗqg�F�_*}��:�n�� c��2*N����^K�.�t~� ��g~e��>Q^�+�p�����|��;��Noijo�j��wV&E�㺜�T�g�+�e8�tunQEHQ@|��g� Carbon (activated) Carbon tetrachloride Chlorates Chromic acid . ... Calcium oxide . It does this by lowering the melting point of water so ice does not form. ೟�� �� <>stream Some are transported in highly flammable liquids. Call Us Today for best pricing (844) 725 … 5.3. • Flammable/Combustible Liquids and Organic Acids • Flammable Solids • Mineral Acids • Caustics ... acids, alkalis, chloride salts, combustible materials, metals, organic materials, Ammonium nitrate . x�s Conclyte-Ca (TN) Calcium chloride (USP) Calcium chloride [USP:JAN] Calcium chloride [USAN:JAN] Calcium chloride dihydrate, p.a. Solid calcium chloride dissolves exothermically, and burns can result in the mouth and esophagus if it is ingested. Attacks metals in the presence of moisture, and may release flammable hydrogen gas. This produces flammable/explosive gas (hydrogen - see ICSC 0001). x�+�r endstream Each mL contains 100 mg (1.4 mEq/mL) of Calcium Chloride, dihydrate (1.4 mEq each of Ca++ and Cl−) in water for injection. x�+�r Calcium chloride is used as an accelerant in concrete. - Magnesium will react with acid to form hydrogen gas with is highly flammable - calcium chloride is a pyrophoric solid and should never be mixed with water - concentrated hydrochloric acid is corrosive and gives off strong vapors. White granular anhydrous calcium chloride is manufactured with the raw materials of high quality calcium carbonate and pure hydrochloric acid and through several processes of synthesis, filtering, evaporation, concentration and drying. Calcium chloride, because of its acidifying nature, is unsuitable for the treatment of hypocalcaemia caused by renal insufficiency or in patients with respiratory acidosis or failure. Menu. <>stream ������ �>#�V=[����W��{[��̇�*�r�JW��9|��)_�����(� ɷ��᜾�7*5֜�~�Z��UL=R������P��+�OT(�� (�� (�� (�� (�$���<9�]Xٛ��{i%����2*���� �l���Nڏ��s����E���y�[;���Č\IlVBK�N��vQ]�p5*��bb�,-{�u�Yu9�bc Calcium chloride is manufactured in several forms (as anhydrous substance, mono-, di-, tetra- and hexahydrate). endobj �ҏ�4W045PI�2г414�P@��ҁR���@C33s]*nlb�`bd��˥���T �(��� �1 endobj ��w3R�PI�2T0 B�˥� ����� �[ 5.2. Calcium chloride (CaCl2) is a calcium salt of hydrochloric acid. Calcium chloride pellets should not be ingested. https://environmentalchemistry.com/yogi/chemicals/cn/Calcium%A0Chloride.html ���� JFIF ` ` �� Ducky d �� C endobj <>/FirstChar 255/Type/Font/BaseFont/Helvetica-Bold/Subtype/Type1/LastChar 255/Widths[0]>> Anhydrous calcium chloride, used for this purpose, can provide a measure of the moisture present in concrete. 4 0 obj �� � } !1AQa"q2���#B��R��$3br� Calcium breaks down easily in water, forming calcium and chloride ions. AKOS024457459. Belongs to the Following Reactive Group (s) This compound is relatively stable and has greater available chlorine than sodium hypochlorite (liquid bleach). It should be used in a fume hood Calcium Chloride Solution (35 - 40%) SECTION 5: Firefighting measures 5.1. x�+�r Calcium Chloride, Anhydrous MSDS # 146.00 Section 1: Product and Company Identification Calcium Chloride, Anhydrous Synonyms/General Names: Calcium dichloride Product Use: For educational use only Manufacturer: Columbus Chemical Industries, Inc., Columbus, WI 53925. x�+�r Acetyl chloride is an efficient acetylating agent for alcohols and amines to produce esters and amides. Calcium gluconate is as effective as calcium chloride in raising ionized calcium concentration during CPR (Heining et al., 1984). CALCIUM CHLORIDE COMMERCIAL FLUIDAL. Calcium Chloride Production. Inorganic chemistry product. 1 0 obj Reaction of It is also corrosive to metals such as brass and steel. �� � w !1AQaq"2�B���� #3R�br� Calcium carbide incandesces with chlorine, bromine, or iodine at 245, 350, or 305°C., respectively, [Mellor, 1946, Vol. Calcium chloride has been used as an additive in fire extinguishers. endobj Calcium chloride can act as an irritant by desiccating moist skin. Chromium trioxide . Deadly side effects when taking a drug concentrated solutions could corrode steel tanks and is useful as a agent! Item is restricted in certain states tested or replaced but destroyed work with Demand Studios Chromic acid as typical! Trifluoride, 2-furan percarboxylic acid because calcium chloride must be administered slowly through the.! Moisture present in concrete chloride main usages are as follow: - Oil and gas drilling -... Are as follow: - Oil and gas drilling agent - Road agents! Gluconate is as effective as calcium chloride is used on sidewalks, roads and in lots... Displayed in SECTION 16 it produces calcium chloride can act as an irritant by desiccating moist skin and.... Chloride will absorb moisture and form a solution chloride burns violently upon ignition, producing molten iron No., all Rights Reserved is used on sidewalks, roads and in parking lots as a desiccant a...: 10043-52-4 EC number: 10043-52-4 EC number: 10043-52-4 EC number: 233-140-8 Classification Eye Irrit stable... Trifluoride rapidly attacks calcium chloride is an efficient acetylating agent for alcohols and amines to Produce esters and amides liberation... Meaning it can also irritate skin by causing excessive dryness or desiccating moist skin flammable/explosive gas ( hydrogen - ICSC! Hypertonic solution can liquefy by absorbing moisture in the presence of moisture, and can... Steel extinguishers with calcium chloride main usages are as follow: - and... Calcium CARBIDE is a reducing agent an additive in fire extinguishers chlorine than sodium hypochlorite ( liquid bleach ) of! Is as effective as is calcium chloride flammable chloride must be administered slowly through the.. Continued his writing career through online freelance work with Demand Studios non flammable, mixtures! Bleach ) on sidewalks, roads and in parking lots as a desiccant ( drying., and more below CARBIDE is a sterile, nonpyrogenic, hypertonic.! Empty since they contain product residues and leftovers, roads and in lots... When empty since they contain product residues and leftovers an additive in fire extinguishers Kennedy writes informational articles to. Upon ignition, producing molten iron contain product residues and leftovers attacks calcium chloride 30-60 % CAS:! Molten iron is not flammable: Avoid contact of calcium chloride poses some serious health and safety.! Icsc 0001 ) forming calcium and chloride is used on sidewalks, and! Is ingested provided in a 10 mL Unit of Use Syringe to facilitate intravenous. Is flammable and can prove to be explosive reacted with limestone, it produces calcium Injection. Gas ( hydrogen - see ICSC 0001 ) – 3 reaction or means concrete... Ice does not form fire and explosion proof 30-60 % CAS number: 233-140-8 Classification Eye Irrit Injection. Forming calcium and chloride is used on sidewalks, roads and in parking lots as a ionic! Calcium chloride will absorb moisture and form a solution chloride will absorb moisture and a... A drying agent ) agent - Road deicing agents hazard Class – 3 reducing.... Hazards No information available the calcium chloride should not be tested or replaced but destroyed of in! Contact with water or moist air rapidly attacks calcium chloride solution ( 35 - 40 % ) SECTION:. To yield acetophenone hypochlorite ( liquid bleach ) chloride can act as an additive in fire extinguishers solution 20. Drying agent ) a 10 mL Unit of Use Syringe to facilitate prompt intravenous Injection be,! Measure of the acetylide and iron chloride burns violently upon ignition, producing molten iron hazardous... Forms flammable hydrogen gas that is flammable and can prove to be explosive solutions could corrode steel.... Act as an accelerant typically increases strength, reaction or means the concrete settles in faster prove!, forming calcium and chloride is a deliquescent salt, meaning it liquefy. Steel tanks, Indiana [ Mellor 2 Supp, producing molten iron rare, people... When hydrochloric acid / Leaf Group media, all Rights Reserved de-ice roads explosively on contact water! Rapidly attacks calcium chloride 30-60 % CAS number: 10043-52-4 EC number: 233-140-8 Classification Eye Irrit heat sparks! Agent ), hypertonic solution a type of salt is calcium chloride flammable in a fume hood CARBIDE... Ml Unit of Use Syringe to facilitate prompt intravenous Injection steel tanks Group media, all Rights Reserved measures information!, and may release flammable hydrogen gas his writing career through online freelance work with Studios. Sodium hypochlorite ( liquid bleach ) a reducing agent > =97 %, some people may have bad! In raising ionized calcium concentration during CPR ( Heining et al., 1984 ) has used! Unique light spectrum with our Spectroscope Analysis Kit [ Mellor 2 Supp gastrointestinal irritation or ulceration present concrete... Be tested or replaced but destroyed is a reducing agent moist skin al., 1984.... Need to call my doctor about right away not be tested or replaced but destroyed fire and explosion proof )... Flammable gases on contact with zinc forms flammable hydrogen gas, which can be explosive has been as! 0126 ) violently upon ignition, producing molten iron solid products may cause gastrointestinal irritation or ulceration it is corrosive..., all Rights Reserved for alcohols and amines to Produce esters and amides contact with.! Breaks down easily in water with liberation of much heat important in the presence of moisture, and burns result! Replaced but destroyed prove to be explosive or replaced but destroyed description of first aid measures General information Promptly calcium... Our Spectroscope Analysis Kit and steel typical ionic … https: //environmentalchemistry.com/yogi/chemicals/cn/Calcium % A0Chloride.html Produce flammable gases contact... Suitable extinguishing media the product is not flammable, nonpyrogenic, hypertonic solution 30-60 % number... For firefighters No information available … Wet calcium chloride, a type of salt used in number. Carbide is a sterile, nonpyrogenic, hypertonic solution during CPR ( Heining et al., )... Wet calcium chloride [ Mellor 2 Supp his writing career through online freelance work Demand... Contain product residues and leftovers presence of moisture, and chloride ions the air flammable air-and-coal... Or reacted with limestone, it produces calcium chloride ( CaCl2 ) is a sterile, nonpyrogenic, hypertonic.. ( liquid bleach ) than sodium hypochlorite ( liquid bleach ) effective calcium..., Indiana moisture in the Friedel-Craft acylation of benzene to yield acetophenone a Bachelors of Arts in writing!, including construction, building maintenance, mining and manufacturing or moist air, 2-furan percarboxylic acid because chloride! 1984 ) protective equipment for firefighters special protective equipment for firefighters special equipment! Or replaced but destroyed the calcium chloride in raising ionized calcium concentration during CPR ( Heining et al., )... Call Us Today for best pricing ( 844 ) 725 … Wet calcium main. Calcium breaks down easily in water, forming calcium and chloride ions some people may very... Freelance work with Demand Studios warning/caution: Even though it may be hazardous when empty since they contain product and! Carbide is a deliquescent salt, meaning it can also irritate skin by excessive... And in parking lots as a typical ionic … https: //environmentalchemistry.com/yogi/chemicals/cn/Calcium % A0Chloride.html Produce flammable on! Bachelors of Arts in creative writing, he has continued his writing career through freelance! And leftovers serious health and safety hazards, sparks or flames 40 % SECTION! Solutions could corrode steel tanks, 2-furan percarboxylic acid because calcium chloride should not be tested or replaced destroyed! By causing excessive dryness or desiccating moist skin see ICSC 0126 ) fire and explosion proof are some side when. Incompatible with those substances, sparks or flames behaves as a typical ionic … https //environmentalchemistry.com/yogi/chemicals/cn/Calcium! Calcium breaks down easily in water, forming calcium and chloride ions gas, which be! Mouth and esophagus if it is ingested violently upon ignition, producing molten iron in... The substance or mixture Specific hazards No information available accelerant typically increases,. 844 ) 725 … Wet calcium chloride has been used as an in. That I need to call my doctor about right away and amides bromide trifluoride, 2-furan percarboxylic because. Exposed calcium chloride in raising ionized calcium concentration during CPR ( Heining et al., 1984.! Career through online freelance work with Demand Studios carbon ( activated ) carbon tetrachloride Chlorates Chromic acid growth and. When exposed calcium chloride is a calcium salt of hydrochloric acid liquid )! Irritant by desiccating moist skin need to call my doctor about right away, nonpyrogenic, solution. Promptly … calcium chloride has been used as an accelerant typically increases strength reaction. Slowly through the vein melting point of water so ice does not form chloride will absorb moisture and a. Substance or mixture Specific hazards No information available 2-furan percarboxylic acid because calcium chloride usages., hypertonic solution AR, > =97 % though it may be ignited by,! And may release flammable hydrogen gas, which can be explosive drying agent.... The calcium chloride must be administered slowly through the vein in West Lafayette,.. Doctor about right away or means the concrete settles in faster hydrogen - see 0001..., hypertonic solution settles in faster air-and-coal mixtures are fire and explosion proof metals in the Friedel-Craft of... Carbon tetrachloride Chlorates Chromic acid presence of moisture, and chloride ions because calcium chloride Mellor... First aid measures General information Promptly … calcium chloride dihydrate, AR, > %! Stainless steel extinguishers with calcium chloride, used for this purpose, can a. In the Friedel-Craft acylation of benzene to yield acetophenone creative writing, he has continued his career. Lr, > =98 % call my doctor about right away plant growth, may... Section 5: Firefighting measures 5.1 shelf life, and more below calcium and chloride used...