More than 337,000 families with children under the age of 18 lived in Berlin. The city has four public research universities and more than 30 private, professional, and technical colleges (Hochschulen), offering a wide range of disciplines. Berlin is home to 44 theaters and stages. Berlin has installed several hundred free public Wireless LAN sites across the capital since 2016. Die Afrikaner kommen – Nachrichten Welt am Sonntag – Welt Online", "Zweites Afrika-Magazin "Afrikanisches Viertel" erschienen Bezirksbürgermeister Dr. Christian Hanke ist Schirmherr", "457 000 Ausländer aus 190 Staaten in Berlin gemeldet", "Fast jeder Dritte in Berlin hat einen Migrationshintergrund", "Migration: Berlin will illegalen Einwanderern helfen – Deutschland – Politik – Tagesspiegel", "Zahl der Ausländer in Berlin steigt auf Rekordhoch", "Studie – Zwei Millionen Berliner sprechen mindestens zwei Sprachen – Wirtschaft – Berliner Morgenpost – Berlin", "Zensus 2011 – Bevölkerung und Haushalte – Bundesland Berlin", "Statistisches Jahrbuch für Berlin 2010", "Ramadan in Flüchtlingsheimen und Schulen in Berlin", "Wird der Islam künftig die stärkste Religion in Berlin sein? [183] A record number of 175,651 students were enrolled in the winter term of 2015/16. [32][33], In 1415, Frederick I became the elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, which he ruled until 1440. You ’ ll also find Germany ’ s climate to be a good fit if you want to be in a place with four distinct seasons. The Museum Island in the River Spree houses five museums built from 1830 to 1930 and is a UNESCO World Heritage site. [76] The wettest month on record was July 1907, with 230 millimeters (9.1 in) of rainfall, whereas the driest were October 1866, November 1902, October 1908 and September 1928, all with 1 millimeter (0.039 in) of rainfall.[77]. Cölln on the Fischerinsel is first mentioned in a 1237 document, and Berlin, across the Spree in what is now called the Nikolaiviertel, is referenced in a document from 1244. The wireless networks are concentrated mostly in central districts; 650 hotspots (325 indoor and 325 outdoor access points) are installed. [171] Cyclists have access to 620 km (385 mi) of bicycle paths including approximately 150 km (93 mi) of mandatory bicycle paths, 190 km (118 mi) of off-road bicycle routes, 60 km (37 mi) of bicycle lanes on roads, 70 km (43 mi) of shared bus lanes which are also open to cyclists, 100 km (62 mi) of combined pedestrian/bike paths and 50 km (31 mi) of marked bicycle lanes on roadside pavements (or sidewalks). [94] A portion of the African immigrants have settled in the Afrikanisches Viertel. Of the estimated population of 30,000–45,000 Jewish residents,[110] approximately 12,000 are registered members of religious organizations.[105]. The Hamburger Bahnhof, in Moabit, exhibits a major collection of modern and contemporary art. The annual Berlin International Film Festival (Berlinale) with around 500,000 admissions is considered to be the largest publicly attended film festival in the world. [8][9] Its 3,769,495 inhabitants as of 31 December 2019[2] make it the most-populous city of the European Union, according to population within city limits. The House of Representatives (Abgeordnetenhaus) functions as the city and state parliament, which has 141 seats. [206] It has become a significant part of the city's cultural heritage and has its roots in the graffiti scene of Kreuzberg of the 1980s. The metropolis is a popular tourist destination. West Berlin was now de facto a part of West Germany with a unique legal status, while East Berlin was de facto a part of East Germany. Much ornamentation on prewar buildings was destroyed following modernist dogmas, and in both postwar systems, as well as in the reunified Berlin, many important heritage structures have been reconstructed, including the Forum Fridericianum along with, the State Opera (1955), Charlottenburg Palace (1957), the monumental buildings on Gendarmenmarkt (1980s), Kommandantur (2003) and also the project to reconstruct the baroque façades of the City Palace. [99] Boroughs of Berlin with a significant number of migrants or foreign born population are Mitte, Neukölln and Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg. [114] The total annual state budget of Berlin in 2015 exceeded €24.5 ($30.0) billion including a budget surplus of €205 ($240) million. Farther inland, the climate is continental, marked by greater diurnal and seasonal variations in temperature, with warmer summers and colder winters. [125] Berlin is the seat of the German Chancellor (Prime Minister), housed in the Chancellery building, the Bundeskanzleramt. Of its ninety-six neighborhoods, twenty-two bear a (partly) Slavic-derived name: Altglienicke, Alt-Treptow, Britz, Buch, Buckow, Gatow, Karow, Kladow, Köpenick, Lankwitz, Lübars, Malchow, Marzahn, Pankow, Prenzlauer Berg, Rudow, Schmöckwitz, Spandau, Stadtrandsiedlung Malchow, Steglitz, Tegel and Zehlendorf. In general, the German climate is mixed and offers from frosty and harsh winters to … Berlin is the central location to several international and regional television and radio stations. In 2014, 67 airlines served 163 destinations in 50 countries from Berlin. At the end of 2018, the city-state of Berlin had 3.75 million registered inhabitants[2] in an area of 891.1 km2 (344.1 sq mi). Berlin's executive body is the Senate of Berlin (Senat von Berlin). [166] The planned initial capacity of around 27 million passengers per year[167] is to be further developed to bring the terminal capacity to approximately 55 million per year by 2040.[168]. 54 percent of them were single-person households. Berlin maintains official partnerships with 17 cities. [152], According to Monocle, Berlin occupies the position of the 6th-most-livable city in the world. The population almost doubled and Berlin had a population of around four million. The East Berlin system which inherited the Hauptelegraphenamt, the central hub of the system, was in operation until 1976, Berlin's two largest energy provider for private households are the Swedish firm Vattenfall and the Berlin-based company GASAG. [citation needed] During World War II, large parts of Berlin were destroyed during 1943–45 Allied air raids and the 1945 Battle of Berlin. The warmest month (with the highest average high temperature) is July (23.7°C). 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The month with the longest days is June (Average daylight: 16.7h). [49] In 1871, Berlin became capital of the newly founded German Empire. Some of the city's electric energy is imported from nearby power plants in southern Brandenburg.[174]. North Rhine-Westphalia In the north-west, the Land of North Rhine-Westphalia, which borders the Netherlands and Belgium, has a climate influenced by the ocean, so in winter it is the mildest area, but it is also humid and sometimes windy, while in summer it is quite cool (although sometimes there … [133] The city has a 6-year primary education program. Berlin has Germany's largest number of daily newspapers, with numerous local broadsheets (Berliner Morgenpost, Berliner Zeitung, Der Tagesspiegel), and three major tabloids, as well as national dailies of varying sizes, each with a different political affiliation, such as Die Welt, Neues Deutschland, and Die Tageszeitung. Some of the most visited places in Berlin include: Potsdamer Platz, Brandenburger Tor, the Berlin wall, Alexanderplatz, Museumsinsel, Fernsehturm, the East-Side Gallery, Schloss-Charlottenburg, Zoologischer Garten, Siegessäule, Gedenkstätte Berliner Mauer, Mauerpark, Botanical Garden, Französischer Dom, Deutscher Dom and Holocaust-Mahnmal. The site of Checkpoint Charlie, one of the most renowned crossing points of the Berlin Wall, is still preserved. Airline service to West Berlin was granted only to American, British and French airlines. Nearby on Tauentzienstraße is KaDeWe, claimed to be continental Europe's largest department store. Forty-seven elite athletes participated in the 2012 Summer Olympics. [1] Berlin's economy is dominated by the service sector, with around 84% of all companies doing business in services. The northern part tends to be colder with slight more rain than the average, while the eastern parts can be quite cold during the winter. Berlin is home to many magazine, newspaper, book and scientific/academic publishers, as well as their associated service industries. The most famous and largest are Berlin Pride, the Christopher Street Day,[214] the Lesbian and Gay City Festival in Berlin-Schöneberg, the Kreuzberg Pride and Hustlaball. Many residents strongly identify with their neighborhoods, colloquially called Kiez. Same-sex bars and dance halls operated freely as early as the 1880s, and the first gay magazine, Der Eigene, started in 1896. [172] Riders are allowed to carry their bicycles on Regionalbahn, S-Bahn and U-Bahn trains, on trams, and on night buses if a bike ticket is purchased. The West German government established itself in Bonn. Berlin was completely divided. [245] and was one of the hosts of the FIBA EuroBasket 2015. Throughout the 1990s, people in their 20s from all over the world, particularly those in Western and Central Europe, made Berlin's club scene a premier nightlife venue. It is also the best ranked region in former East Germany after Jena, Dresden and Potsdam.[157][158]. [215][216] The Karneval der Kulturen (Carnival of Cultures), a multi-ethnic street parade, is celebrated every Pentecost weekend. Berlin weather forecast, current conditions, sunrise, sunset and climate information. Today ethnic Germans from countries of the former Soviet Union make up the largest portion of the Russian-speaking community. The Reichstag building is the traditional seat of the German Parliament. [151] The public broadcaster RBB has its headquarters in Berlin as well as the commercial broadcasters MTV Europe and Welt. As of 2015[update] the five largest power plants measured by capacity are the Heizkraftwerk Reuter West, the Heizkraftwerk Lichterfelde, the Heizkraftwerk Mitte, the Heizkraftwerk Wilmersdorf, and the Heizkraftwerk Charlottenburg. speech, is in Tempelhof-Schöneberg. EKBO is a member of the Evangelical Church in Germany (EKD) and Union Evangelischer Kirchen (UEK). 80.000 pieces; Delivery in original packaging; This 5 Euro collector's coin is the fourth issue of the five-part series "Climate Zones of the Earth" and is dedicated to the Subpolar Zone. Due to the influence and international partnerships of the Federal Republic of Germany, the capital city has become a significant center of German and European affairs. In 1993 the power grid connections in the Berlin-Brandenburg capital region were renewed. Berlin is the seat of the Roman Catholic archbishop of Berlin and EKBO's elected chairperson is titled the bishop of EKBO. Many Classical buildings line the street and part of Humboldt University is there. [134] [needs update]. [197], The expanding cultural performance of the city was underscored by the relocation of the Universal Music Group who decided to move their headquarters to the banks of the River Spree. [50], Weather Atlas | © 2002-2021 | Yu Media Group d.o.o. Other gardens in the city include the Britzer Garten, and the Gärten der Welt (Gardens of the World) in Marzahn. As of 2018, the three largest banks headquartered in the capital were Deutsche Kreditbank, Landesbank Berlin and Berlin Hyp.[143]. [14] After World War II and its subsequent occupation by the victorious countries, the city was divided; West Berlin became a de facto West German exclave, surrounded by the Berlin Wall (1961–1989) and East German territory. Other landmarks include the Brandenburg Gate, the Reichstag building, Potsdamer Platz, the Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe, the Berlin Wall Memorial, the East Side Gallery, the Berlin Victory Column, Berlin Cathedral and the Berlin Television Tower, the tallest structure in Germany. The coldest month (with the lowest average low temperature) is January (-1.9°C). Berlin will host the 2023 Special Olympics World Summer Games. East Berlin's partnerships were canceled at the time of German reunification but later partially reestablished. Approximately halfway from the Brandenburg Gate is the Großer Stern, a circular traffic island on which the Siegessäule (Victory Column) is situated. Columns of tractors, farmers, climate, and animal rights activists gathered to demand new agricultural policies in Berlin for the yearly 'We're fed up' demonstration, on Saturday. In 1685, after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in France, the city responded with the Edict of Potsdam, which guaranteed religious freedom and tax-free status to French Huguenot refugees for ten years. In Germany, some like it hot — this summer's unusually hot, sunny weather, that is. Winters are cool with average high temperatures of 3 Â°C (37 Â°F) and lows of −2 to 0 Â°C (28 to 32 Â°F). Gerstengarbe FW, Werner PC (2009) A short update on Koeppen climate shifts in Europe between 1901 and 2003. [239], Potsdam is on the southwestern periphery of Berlin. After 1949 the system was split in two separated networks. Berlin's official sister cities are:[120], Apart from sister cities, there are also several city and district partnerships that Berlin districts have established. It carries vehicles, pedestrians, and the U1 Berlin U-Bahn line. The Funkturm Berlin is a 150-meter-tall (490 ft) lattice radio tower in the fairground area, built between 1924 and 1926. Months with the lowest number of rainy days are June, July and August (7 days). The Spree follows this valley now. The expanded Deutsches Historisches Museum reopened in the Zeughaus with an overview of German history spanning more than a millennium. The number of deaths was 32,314. This climate is considered to be Dfb according to the Köppen-Geiger climate classification. [246], The annual Berlin Marathon – a course that holds the most top-10 world record runs – and the ISTAF are well-established athletic events in the city. The Berlin State Opera on Unter den Linden opened in 1742 and is the oldest of the three. Berlin is home to world-renowned universities such as the Humboldt Universität zu Berlin (HU Berlin), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU Berlin), the Freie Universität Berlin (Free University of Berlin), the Universität der Künste (University of the Arts, UdK) and ESMT Berlin. The sunshine reduces drastically to 4 hours by the end of October as cold fronts become common. [238] Tempelhofer Feld, the site of the former city airport, is the world's largest inner-city open space. [62] Due to the fall in passenger numbers resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic, plans were announced to temporarily close BER's Terminal 5, the former Schönefeld Airport, beginning in March 2021 for up to one year. [3] The Berlin-Brandenburg capital region has about six million inhabitants[10] and is Germany's third-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr and Rhine-Main regions. The Beate Uhse Erotic Museum claims to be the world's largest erotic museum.[205]. Berlin's Botanischer Garten includes the Botanic Museum Berlin. [120] Town twinning between Berlin and other cities began with its sister city Los Angeles in 1967. The Governing Mayor is simultaneously Lord Mayor of the City of Berlin (Oberbürgermeister der Stadt) and Minister President of the State of Berlin (Ministerpräsident des Bundeslandes). Ivan Fischer is its principal conductor. We use cookies and other tracking technologies on the website to improve your browsing experience, display personalized content and targeted ads, analyze website traffic, and learn where our visitors are coming from. Temperatures can be 4 Â°C (7 Â°F) higher in the city than in the surrounding areas. Furthermore, Berlin is the seat of many Orthodox cathedrals, such as the Cathedral of St. Boris the Baptist, one of the two seats of the Bulgarian Orthodox Diocese of Western and Central Europe, and the Resurrection of Christ Cathedral of the Diocese of Berlin (Patriarchate of Moscow). It combines 20th-century traditions with the modern architecture of today's Berlin. [230][231] German bakeries offering a variety of breads and pastries are widespread. The Independent Evangelical Lutheran Church has eight parishes of different sizes in Berlin. Germany is located in the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere and a general description of the climate is hardly possible due to its geographical location. Spring and autumn are generally chilly to mild. Additional information on international climatic zones can be found in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2007 Normative Appendix B – Building Envelope Climate Criteria. In 2015, the total labor force in Berlin was 1.85 million. The Berliner Ensemble, famous for performing the works of Bertolt Brecht, was established in 1949. Although it was possible for Westerners to pass to the other side through strictly controlled checkpoints, for most Easterners travel to West Berlin or West Germany was prohibited by the government of East Germany. In 1920, the Greater Berlin Act incorporated dozens of suburban cities, villages and estates around Berlin into an expanded city. Tegel Airport was within the city limits, and Schönefeld Airport was located at the same site as the BER. Restoration and construction of a main entrance to all museums, as well as reconstruction of the Stadtschloss continues. American electric car manufacturer Tesla is building its first European Gigacatory just outside of the city in Grünheide (Mark). The month with the lowest UV index is December (UV index 0). It also houses a multi-sensory spa experience. The Rathaus Schöneberg, where John F. Kennedy made his famous "Ich bin ein Berliner!" [65], Berlin is in northeastern Germany, in an area of low-lying marshy woodlands with a mainly flat topography, part of the vast Northern European Plain which stretches all the way from northern France to western Russia. In Spandau, a borough in the west of Berlin, the Spree empties into the river Havel, which flows from north to south through western Berlin. The sectors of the Western Allies (the United States, the United Kingdom and France) formed West Berlin, while the Soviet sector formed East Berlin.[55]. These include the Old National Gallery, the Bode Museum, the Pergamon Museum, the German Historical Museum, the Jewish Museum Berlin, the Natural History Museum, the Humboldt Forum, the Berlin State Library, the Berlin State Opera, the Berlin Philharmonic and the Berlin Marathon.[26]. Germany > Berlin. The scientific research at these institutions is complemented by many research departments of companies such as Siemens and Bayer. 4th Issue of the Series Climate Zones of the Earth; Mintmark A - Berlin; Mintage max. Berlin (/ b ɜːr ˈ l ɪ n /; German: [bɛʁˈliːn] ())] is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population. The afternoons are warm, while the evenings are mild as the average temperatures remain in the 5.6°C (42.1°F) to 13.9°C (57°F) zone. [196] An innovative music, dance and art scene has developed in the 21st century. Current local time in Germany – Berlin. There are the Freie Universität Berlin (Free University of Berlin, FU Berlin) with about 33,000[185] students, the Humboldt Universität zu Berlin (HU Berlin) with 35,000[186] students, and the Technische Universität Berlin (TU Berlin) with 35,000[187] students. According to figures from the International Congress and Convention Association in 2015 Berlin became the leading organizer of conferences in the world hosting 195 international meetings. The average temperatures are between -2.8°C (27°F) and 2.8°C (37°F) as conditions remain cold and regularly below freezing. The Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe, a Holocaust memorial, is to the north.[89]. The capital of Germany and second most populated city in Europe is situated in eastern part of the country close to border with Poland. The metropolis experienced its heyday as a major world capital and was known for its leadership roles in science, technology, arts, the humanities, city planning, film, higher education, government and industries. Since Berlin, Germany is in the Temperate zone, the temperatures are more mild compared to the Tropical zone and the Polar zone. [153] Economist Intelligence Unit ranks Berlin number 21 of all global cities. The name Berlin has its roots in the language of West Slavic inhabitants of the area of today's Berlin, and may be related to the Old Polabian stem berl-/birl- ("swamp"). The month with the lowest average high temperature is January (2.9°C). [32], In 1740, Frederick II, known as Frederick the Great (1740–1786), came to power. Berlin is one of the world's most livable cities. In 2018, the GDP of Berlin totaled €147 billion, an increase of 3.1% over the previous year. [29] 1237 is considered the founding date of the city. [93] The last decade experienced an influx from various Western countries and some African regions. Even the driest month still has a lot of rainfall. [85] Berlin's second largest and most popular park, the Großer Tiergarten, is located right in the center of the city. The neighborhoods have no local government bodies. [73], Summers are warm and sometimes humid with average high temperatures of 22–25 Â°C (72–77 Â°F) and lows of 12–14 Â°C (54–57 Â°F). Starting here the Karl-Marx-Allee heads east, an avenue lined by monumental residential buildings, designed in the Socialist Classicism style. Clusters of towers rise at various locations: Potsdamer Platz, the City West, and Alexanderplatz, the latter two delineating the former centers of East and West Berlin, with the first representing a new Berlin of the 21st century, risen from the wastes of no-man's land of the Berlin Wall. Clim Change 92: 99–107, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Germany's third-largest metropolitan region, world's oldest large-scale movie studio complex, heat stored by the city's buildings and pavement, Evangelical Church of Berlin-Brandenburg-Silesian Upper Lusatia (EKBO), Member states of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, Union of Evangelical Free Church Congregations in Germany, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Berlin's 12 boroughs and their 96 neighborhoods, List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany, Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women and Youth, Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, International Congress and Convention Association, largest power plants measured by capacity, Universities and research institutions in Berlin, Beuth University of Applied Sciences Berlin, European Institute of Innovation and Technology, "Amt für Statistik Berlin Brandenburg – Statistiken", "Statistischer Bericht: Einwohnerinnen und Einwohner im Land Berlin am 31. The Social Democratic Party (SPD) and The Left (Die Linke) took control of the city government after the 2001 state election and won another term in the 2006 state election. [59] On 18 June 1994, soldiers from the United States, France and Britain marched in a parade which was part of the ceremonies to mark the withdrawal of allied occupation troops allowing a reunified Berlin[60] (the last Russian troops departed on 31 August, while the final departure of Western Allies forces was on 8 September 1994). Among them are the German Heart Center, one of the most renowned transplantation centers, the Max-Delbrück-Center for Molecular Medicine and the Max-Planck-Institute for Molecular Genetics. [30] The central part of Berlin can be traced back to two towns. The largest religious denomination recorded in 2010 was the Protestant regional church body—the Evangelical Church of Berlin-Brandenburg-Silesian Upper Lusatia (EKBO)—a United church. [96], In December 2019, there were 777,345 registered residents of foreign nationality and another 542,975 German citizens with a "migration background" (Migrationshintergrund, MH),[2] meaning they or one of their parents immigrated to Germany after 1955. Due to its location in the European Plain, Berlin is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. Travelers can access all modes of transport with a single ticket. Berlin - Average temperatures. Berlin's history has left the city with a polycentric organization and a highly eclectic array of architecture and buildings. The Oberbaumbrücke over the Spree river is Berlin's most iconic bridge, connecting the now-combined boroughs of Friedrichshain and Kreuzberg. This was a successful attempt to centralise the capital in the very far-flung state, and it was the first time the city began to grow. According to the EKBO, their membership accounted for 18.7 percent of the local population, while the Roman Catholic Church had 9.1 percent of residents registered as its members. All Year Climate & Weather Averages in Berlin. [33] Officially, the Berlin-Cölln palace became permanent residence of the Brandenburg electors of the Hohenzollerns from 1486, when John Cicero came to power. [64] A partial opening by the end of 2020 of the Humboldt Forum museum, housed in the reconstructed Berlin City Palace, which had been announced in June, was postponed until March 2021. Polish, English, Russian, and Vietnamese have more native speakers in East Berlin. It partners with major multinational companies such as Siemens, Deutsche Telekom, and SAP. Tons of bombs on the city intercity bus services stored by the German landscape is filled with forests. In 1871, Berlin has been celebrated as one of the German Kaiser, 1918... Germany. 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