2014). Using the program Blast2go (biobam—Conesa et al. The number of reads may be prone to being biased by a small number of samples of which feces contained considerable amounts of a plant tissue. endobj Galetti, M., R. R.Rodarte, C. L.Neves, M.Moreira, and R. Costa-Pereira. Therefore, a higher dependency of A. speciosus on Fagaceae species, and the diverse diet of A. argenteus are considered to be characteristic throughout Japan. The PCR conditions were as follows: a cycle of denaturation at 95°C for 1 min, 40 cycles of denaturation at 94°C for 30 s, annealing at 57°C for 90 s, extension at 72°C for 1 min, and a final cycle of extension at 72°C for 10 min. However, it is not clear what specific ecological niche differences enable phylogenetically overdispersed sympatric mammals in Japan to coexist. Behavioral niche partitioning is an important and widely assumed mechanism for the coexistence of ecologically similar species. During early part of lactation, dry matter intake remains suboptimum thus dairy cow is unable to meet out production requirements though intake. Shirako, T., M. Aichi, K. Ueno, and M. Minami. Search for other works by this author on: Tohoku Research Center, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Nabeyashiki, Shimo-Kuriyagawa, Morioka, Japan, Laboratory of Forest Biology, Division of Forest and Biomaterials Science, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan, Field Science Center, Hokkaido University, Tokuda, Nayoro, Japan, Field Science Center, Hokkaido University, Kita-11, Nishi-10, Sapporo, Japan, Vertical space use of voles and mice in woods of Hokkaido, Japan, Journal of the Mammalogical Society of Japan, Bulletin of the Iwate Prefecture Agricultural Experiment Station, Diet analysis by next-generation sequencing indicates the frequent consumption of introduced plants by the critically endangered red-headed wood pigeon (, Global patterns in the phylogenetic structure of island mammal assemblages, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B. Most of these 8 families (Betulaceae, Fabaceae, Oleaceae, Pinaceae, Poaceae, Rutaceae, Tiliaceae, and Ulmaceae) were tall tree species (Table 1; Fig. The niche partitioning includes not only differences in the basic plant components of their diet, but also in the seasonal resource use of these mice. 10.1073/pnas.1503283112 6A). in Tiliaceae, and Ulmus sp. It is, however, also true that special carefulness is necessary for the quantitative interpretations of sequence reads (Deagle et al. Supplementary Data SD6.—Result of the EcoSimR analysis. 4 and 5), while A. argenteus consumes material from a more diverse range of families but including the Ulmaceae to a lesser extent (Figs. It is likely that the 2 Apodemus species depend on different life stages of this plant species. Niche partitioning facilitates species coexistence in a world of limited resources, thereby enriching biodiversity. The dietary niche, as one part of the isotopic niche, can be examined with high resolution using molecular techniques. Cardillo, M., J. L. Gittleman, and A. Purvis. Food items identified are listed in Table 1. 2009; Ando et al. For decades, biologists have sought to understand how diverse assemblages of large mammalian herbivores (LMH) partition food resources. We are grateful to Y. Akimoto, A. Akimoto, R. Onodera, and H. Wakabayashi for their assistance with fieldwork to capture mice and collect fecal samples, and the staff of the Uryu Experimental Forest, Hokkaido University, for providing support for the field investigation. Species can differentiate their niches in many ways, such as by consuming different foods, or using different areas of the environment. Clarifying community structure and determining how species coexist are important for understanding the mechanisms promoting biodiversity at the species level. Cryptobenthic reef fishes account for approximately half of all reef fish species and are an abundant and important group on coral reefs worldwide. 2007; Onodera et al. These empirical results corroborate that competitive interactions and the degree of specialisation may strongly shape the success of introductions of top-predators in freshwater … Niche partitioning facilitates species coexistence in a world of limited resources, thereby enriching biodiversity. Statistical significance for niche overlap was assessed using the EcoSimR package for R (Gotelli et al. and Abies sachalinensis in Pinaceae, Phellodendron amurense in Rutaceae, Tilia sp. Seasonal changes in the niche breadth (A) and niche overlap (B) of Apodemus argenteus and A. speciosus based on the number of occurrences of plant taxa in the diet. In the past, the diets of Apodemus species have been assessed through direct observation of food items in feces or stomach contents under the microscope (Abe and Oya 1974; Mizushima and Yamada 1974; Tachibana et al. Therefore, as suggested by some recent studies (Willerslev et al. 5A and E based on the occurrences data). In the same study site, Saitoh et al. Forty-three individuals of A. argenteus and 49 of A. speciosus were captured, and feces were sampled from each individual. Niche breadth of each Apodemus species and niche overlap between them were assessed with the indicspecies package (De Cáceres et al. Instead, A. argenteus had a wider niche breadth, feeding upon a wider range of plant families such as Betulaceae, Fabaceae, Oleaceae, Pinaceae, Rutaceae, Sapindaceae, Tiliaceae, and Ulmaceae, which were consumed only infrequently by A. speciosus. Watch the Niche Partitioning clip and then complete the following table to describe the remaining examples of niche partitioning. evidence on niche partitioning, dietary seasonality and potentially even fallback food consumption. 2012). In this study we aimed to improve our understanding of species coexistence. 2 and 3). 74 0 obj Djagouna, C. A. M. S., D. Codronb, J. Sealyd, G. A. Mensaha, and B. Sinsina. The indices of niche overlap in July were significantly lower than those in August and September. <>/ExtGState<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC]/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/Thumb 78 0 R/Type/Page>> 2015; Supplementary Data SD1). 2011). HilleRisLambers, J., P. B. Adler, W. S. Harpole, J. M. Levine, and M. M. Mayfield. Dietary partitioning is not the mechanism allowing these congeneric varanid lizards to … One classic mechanism of dietary niche partitioning is the grazer-browser spectrum, which suggests that some herbivores (grazers, such as zebras) eat only grasses, some (browsers, such as dik-dik) eat only plants that aren't grasses, and others eat both. The 2 species showed a relatively large degree of niche overlap in plant dietary profiles, feeding mostly on acorn-producing Fagaceae species (assumed to be Quercus crispula). We designated genus or family names for these identified items based on Supplementary Data SD2. Similarly, the number of reads for Fagaceae species for A. speciosus (3,622) was much larger than that for A. argenteus (598; Table 1; Fig. 2009b), plus an additional 30 bp of sequence that were used as primers for the emulsion PCR and Ion PGM sequencing below. endobj ������.��Z��do~�U G�� �Z=�x��gư=�� %��z��^�hy�:稶|M��8͊��[��ulzw��IήB�X@U���J�n�:��X1�s�� 2021-01-08T19:18:22-08:00 The numbers of reads for these 3 sequences were 8,051 and 2,772 for A. argenteus and A. speciosus, respectively (Supplementary Data SD3), and were identical apart from differences in length. Detailed information about the obtained samples is summarized in Supplementary Data SD1. Therefore, we assumed that the Fagaceae species detected was Q. crispula. 119 0 obj Supplementary Data SD2.—Obtained sequences, top BLAST hit genera, and estimated plant families. uuid:96b68de3-1dd1-11b2-0a00-110a275dc400 2015-05-27 In this study, we profile plant diets of 2 sympatric species of wood mice in Japan, A. argenteus and A. speciosus, using DNA meta-barcoding analyses with NGS, and compare their dietary profiles to explore the niche partitioning and the mechanism of coexistence between them. However, details of the mechanisms that segregate their niches have not been examined. Coexistence in a world of limited resources, thereby enriching biodiversity resolution using molecular techniques bring opportunity... M. Minami C.Brochmann, and maximum snow depth is 275 cm with high resolution using molecular techniques the... Shioya, K. Ueno, and from 21 families for A. speciosus based minor! E., A., S. N.Jarman, and L. 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