"Sikhism rejects the view that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly regarding Absolute Truth. Aurangzeb summoned Guru Har Rai, who refused to go and sent his elder son Ram Rai instead. The term Sikh has its origin in the word śiṣya (शिष्य), meaning 'disciple' or 'student'. Sikhs (/ s iː k / or / s ɪ k /; Punjabi: ਸਿੱਖ, sikkh, ) are people associated with Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the 15th century in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent, based on the revelation of Guru Nanak. Worship in a gurdwara consists chiefly of the singing of passages from the scripture. Prior to his death, he passed on his volume to Guru Angad (Guru 1539–1551). A gurmatā may only be passed on a subject that affects the fundamental principles of Sikh religion; it is binding upon all Sikhs. Sikhs believe the world is currently in a state of kali yuga ('age of darkness') because the world is led astray by the love of and attachment to maya. Some disagree with this viewpoint, and state that. Gurdwaras are open to all, regardless of religion, background, caste, or race. [10], Sikhism developed from the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru (1469–1539),[11] and of the nine Sikh gurus who succeeded him. Sikhism originated in South Asia, which now falls into the present-day states of India and Pakistan. Sikhs strive to attain consciousness of the Guru's teachings (gurmat) through reflection on sacred hymns and recitation of the divine name. However, what is not in doubt is the emphasis on 'one'. [182] The other states that Nanak was a guru. [48] The fate of people vulnerable to the five thieves, is separation from God, and the situation may be remedied only after intensive and relentless devotion. [115] It is written in the Gurmukhī script, which is a descendant of the Laṇḍā script used in the Punjab at that time. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Sikh teachings also stress the concept of sharing, or vaṇḍ chakkō, giving to the needy for the benefit of the community. He is not an incarnation of God, not even a prophet. [169] Many Sikhs are not formally and fully initiated, as they do not undergo this ceremony, but do adhere to some components of Sikhism and identify as Sikhs. The Nirankari sect, though unorthodox, was influential in shaping the views of Tat Khalsa and the contemporary-era Sikh beliefs and practices. Updates? [10] According to Pew Research, a religion demographics and research group in Washington DC, "more than nine-in-ten Sikhs are in India, but there are also sizable Sikh communities in the United States, the United Kingdom and Canada. [207] The elder son of Guru Ram Das named Prithi Chand is remembered in the Sikh tradition as vehemently opposing Guru Arjan, creating a faction Sikh community which the Sikhs following Guru Arjan called as Minas (literally, "scoundrels"). [179], There are two competing theories on Guru Nanak's teachings. [260][258], Between March and August 1947, a series of riots, arson, plunder of Sikh and property, assassination of Sikh leaders, and killings in Jhelum districts, Rawalpindi, Attock and other places made Tara Singh call the situation in Punjab as "civil war", while Lord Mountbatten stated "civil war preparations were going on". However, the exponents of these are rarely to be found amongst the Sikhs who are conversant with all the Ragas in the Guru Granth Sahib. At 22 million individuals, Indiahas the largest Sikh population. Gurudwara Sis Ganj Sahib in Delhi. Guru Hargobind: A new direction for the Panth, Guru Gobind Singh and the founding of the Khalsa, British Broadcasting Corporation - Sikhism, Cultural India - Indian Religions - Sikhism, Sikhism - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Sikhism - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). [275][276], Sikh sects are sub-traditions within Sikhism that believe in an alternate lineage of gurus, or have a different interpretation of the Sikh scriptures, or believe in following a living guru, or hold other concepts that differ from the orthodox Khalsa Sikhs. [169] During this ceremony, sweetened water is stirred with a double-edged sword while liturgical prayers are sung; it is offered to the initiating Sikh, who ritually drinks it. [135], While the Guru Granth Sahib acknowledges the Vedas, Puranas and Qur'an,[136] it does not imply a syncretic bridge between Hinduism and Islam,[137] but emphasises focusing on nitnem banis like Japu (repeating mantra of the divine Name of God – WaheGuru), instead of Muslim practices such as circumcision or praying on a carpet, or Hindu rituals such as wearing thread or praying in a river. It is unclear how many years he served in prison, with different texts stating it to be between 2 and 12. 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